One is Carrick Housing, an arms length management organisation (ALMO) in Cornwall. Carrick has retrofitted 250 homes in 23 locations with heat pumps. Calorex ground-source Heat Plant units of 3·4 and 5·0 kW rating have been used. They serve radiator and a storage cylinder in each home to provide full heating and hot water. Over 18 km of bore holes were drilled by Earth Energy and fitted with 36 km of heat transfer pipe. Grant support was provided by E.ON. The homes have had at least one winter’s operation, and in some cases two. Carrick has monitored tenant reaction to the heat pumps and has had positive feedback, with over 90% expressing ‘high satisfaction’. Energy use and CO2 reduction have been separately assessed in a study by Exeter University, which reported a CO2 reduction of 3·5 t per house per year — a fall of 73% from previous emissions. At the other side of the country, Mid Suffolk District Council adopted a similar approach for a scheme of 16 bungalows in the village of Stradbroke, again without gas. Under the council’s Decent Home Plus objectives, eliminating electric heating was a target. Oil was not a technical option due to tank siting and delivery. There were also fears that tenants might not be able to budget for large oil bills and would react by not using the system. NPS Property Consultants, working with the council, chose a ground-source system, again with E.ON providing grant support, and using Calorex Heat Plant equipment. The heating side is based on radiators and a pressurised 210 litre hot water storage cylinder. NPS has monitored tenant reaction over the last two years. This has shown that tenants, many of whom are elderly, are staying warm and their lower fuel bills are in line with their expectations. These two examples show how heat pumps can deliver year-round comfort at running costs that are within the limited budgets of social-housing tenants. With grants from the CERT and Low Carbon Buildings programmes for qualifying social-housing schemes totalling up to 85% of the cost, the capital outlay for heat-pump installations also compares favourably with conventional heating systems. For social-housing providers and their tenants, heat pumps now provide an affordable solution.